Construction and validation of the innovation questionnaire of sports club managers.

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD Student in Sports Management., Azad University, Karaj . Branch, Iran

2 Sports Management ., Azad University, Karaj Branch, Iran

3 , Sports Management, Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch. Faculty of Physical Education



The purpose of this study was to build and validate the innovation questionnaire of sports club managers. The research method is mixed. The statistical population of the research in the qualitative sector consisted of experts in the field of sports management scientific and executive, which were targeted purposefully for qualitative interviews. Interview with 15 people was done to theoretical saturation. In the quantitative research section, 406 were selected by stratified sampling selected by stratified sampling. To collect data, a researcher-made innovation questionnaire were used. The reliability of the innovation questionnaire with Cronbach's alpha method was 0.92. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by experts and professors. For data analysis, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was used. All tests were performed using SPSS and laser software. The findings of this study showed that the managers' innovation questionnaire in sports clubs includes 13 components in the form of 58 questions. Innovation components including creativity, risk, success, tendency to change, challenge, technology, customer attraction, advertising, equipment, executive staff, manpower, leadership and teamwork and management style. Accordingly, sports club managers must pay special attention to the strategic variables of the organization such as innovation.


Sports Club, Performance, Innovation Managers


Main Subjects