Testing the Model of Superstition in Sports Fans

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD Student, Department of Physical Education, Islamic Azad University, Research and Science Branch, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Sport Management, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran,

3 Associate Professor, Department of Sport Management, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran,

4 Professor, Department of Physical Education, Islamic Azad University, Research and Science Branch, Tehran, Iran.



The main purpose was to test the superstition model in sports fans. The present study is a descriptive correlational study based on structural equation modeling and is considered as an applied research in terms of purpose. The statistical population of this study consisted of all fans of the Iranian Premier League football, basketball and volleyball teams in the 98-99 season. The statistical sample was selected using 390 people using G-Power software and the available random sampling method. In this study, questionnaires of Lachman (1986) control source, Carlson et al. (2009), superstitious beliefs Flack et al. (2014), superstitious behaviors Dwyer et al. (2017) were used. The results of Structural equation modeling with partial least squares approach showed that the locus of external control has a significant positive effect on superstitions in sports fans as well as superstitions on adjective superstitions and superstitious beliefs. However, the effect of superstitions on superstitious behaviors was not significant. Therefore, it is suggested that the cultural committee of sports federations, sports clubs and sports fans' associations control sports superstitious behaviors among fans by holding training courses.


Main Subjects

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