Construction and Validation of a Tool in Measuring Chess Management in Iranian Sport Organizations

Document Type : Research Paper


1 College of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch

2 College of Physical Education, Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Karaj, Iran

3 college of physical education and sport sciences, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.


Strategic thinking is a process that the top managers view the daily crises from a wide perspective and offer different solutions in order to solve organization problems. Chess is an intellectual sport that involves higher thinking ability and a chess player strategically moves his or her pieces on the chessboard. Chess management model not only modeling the game, it has also been an integrated part of all the management and leadership styles that have emerged in the world. The purpose of the present study was to construct and validate a tool to measure chess management for Iranian sport organizations. The study was conducted through a combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods. First, by studying the theoretical background and consulting with the experts, the qualitative data were prepared and as the result the initial form of questionnaire was constructed. The initial data were analyzed in an exploratory factor analysis to determine the factors through using the principal component method in orthogonal rotation. In order to evaluate the psychometric indices, a sample of 120 participants from the population responded to the questionnaire. After quantitative and qualitative processes were conducted, a final chess management questionnaire with 36 items was constructed and in the final stage a sample of 334 participants from the population responded to the questionnaire. The results of exploratory and confirmatory showed that the constructed instrument has sufficient stability and validity to measure chess management processes in Iranian sport organizations.


- انصاری مهر، م. کریمی، ز (1393). مدیریت مبتنی بر تفکر شطرنجی، اصفهان، نشر نوشته، چاپ اول.
- گال، م. بورگ، و. گال، ج (2003). روش‌های تحقیق کمی و کیفی در علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، ترجمه نصر و دیگران، (1393)، تهران: انتشارات سمت، چاپ نهم.
- کشاورز، ل. (1390). تدوین مناظر و نقشه استراتژیک کمیته ملی المپیک با کارت امتیازی متوازن، رساله دکتری مدیریت ورزشی، دانشگاه پیام نور، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی.
- پورصادق، ناصر و یزدانی، بهرنگ (1390)، «تأثیر قابلیت تفکر استراتژیک مدیران ارشد بر موفقیت شرکت‌های کوچک و متوسط»، مجله مطالعات راهبردی، 7(1): 12-17.
- ربیعی، ع؛ خاتمی، ن؛ علاقمند، ش؛ خاشعی، ف و مهرآرین، ر (1387)، «بررسی میزان تفکر استراتژیک در سازمان‌های استراتژی محور»، پنجمین کنفرانس بین‌المللی مدیریت استراتژیک تهران.
- استیسی، ر (2010). تفکر استراتژیک و مدیریت تحول، ترجمه مصطفی جعفری و مهزیار کاظمی موحد، (1389)، تهران: انتشارات رسا، چاپ سوم.
-  Agrawal, D. C., Kukreti, A., Ansari, A. (2017). "Application of total quality management in chess". Asian Journal of Research in Business, Economic and Management, 7(7), 351-372.
-  Alojzije, J., Ivan, N. (2019). Chess as a powerful educational tool for successful people. Governance Research and Development Centre, Zagreb, 425-441.
-  Bonn, I. (2001). "Developing strategic thing as a core competency", Management decision, 39(1), 63-70.
-  Casey, A. Goldman, E. (2010). "Enhancing the ability to think strategically: A learning model". Management Learning, 41(2), 167-185.
-  Castello, A. B. & Osborne, J. W. (2005). "Best practices in Exploratory Factor Analysis: Four Recommendations for Getting the most From your Analysis". Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 10(7), 1-9.
-  Fischer, C. F. (1978). Being there vicariously by case studies. In O. Milton (Ed.), on college teaching. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
-  Gobet, F., Campitelli, G. (2014). Intelligence and chess. Proceedings of the 4th Colloquium, Board Games in Academia, 103-112.
-  Goldman, F. E. (2005). "Becoming an expertise strategic thinker", The Learning Journal of Healthcare CEOs. 12(2), 20-27.
-  Guness, G., Tugrul, B. (2017). "Is chess just a game, or it is a mirror that reflects the child’s inner world". International Journal of Research in Education and Science, 3(2), 438-451.
-  Hallaji M, Zrdoshtian SH. Tndnevis F. (2011). "Transformational leadership style and pragmatic coaches with the player`s commitment of Iranian premier handball players". Study in Sport Science. 1(1), 27-44.
-  Kasparov, G. (2007). How life imitates chess, Bloomsbury USA, New York.
-  Mark V.C. (2013). "The right moves: Creating experiential management learning with chess". The International Journal of Management Education, 11(2), 25–33.
-  Morales, E. (1996). "Learning playing strategies in chess". Computational Intelligence, 12(1), 65-87.
-  Nazari R. Ghasemi H. Sohrabi Z. (2016). "The relationship between communication skills, leadership styles and culture and the effectiveness of managers in sports organizations: structural equation modeling". Journal of Sport Management and Motor Behavior, 21(2), 93-102.
-  Sadik, R., Kardas, N. T. (2018). "Analysis of the attitudes of the teacher candidates toward the game of chess". Universal Journal of Educational Research, 6(11), 2438-2443.
Tabachnick, B. G.and Fidell, L. S.(2012). Using multivariate Statistics. 6h Edition, Person Education, Boston.
-  Young, A. G. & Pearce, S. (2013). "A Beginner's guide to factor analysis: Focusing on Exploratory Factor Analysis". Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 9 (2), 79-94.